Drvo ličija gubi voće: što uzrokuje pad voća od ličija


Napisala: Mary Ellen Ellis

Drveće ličija zabavno je uzgajati u tropskim vrtovima jer pružaju i lijep fokus krajolika i berbu ukusnih plodova. Otkrijte šta uzrokuje pad voća i poduzmite korake kako biste osigurali bolji rod.

Šta uzrokuje pad voća od ličija?

Ako vam voće rano opada, moglo bi biti nekoliko razloga. Drveće ličija obično daje više plodova nego što je moguće zadržati, tako da neko ispuštanje može biti rezultat prirodnog trošenja.

Stres može povećati prirodni pad voća u ličiju, a stres može povećati suša, temperature hladnije od uobičajene ili nedostatak hranjivih sastojaka. Lychee je notorno spreman da rano baci voće, tako da je važno biti oprezan kako bi se stres smanjio na minimum.

Ostali razlozi za to što drvo ličija često ispušta voće uključuju infekcije i štetočine. Postoji nekoliko štetnika koji mogu napasti vaše drvo i doprinijeti većem padu voća: smrdljiva kukac od ličija, stjenice u plodovima, grinje erinoze i nekoliko vrsta moljaca i voćnih muha.

Bolest plamenjače uzrokuje smeđe lezije na voću i rano ispuštanje. Ptice takođe mogu uzrokovati rano opadanje voća.

Kako minimizirati rano voće koje opada sa drveća ličija

Prvo, budite sigurni da vaše drvo dobiva sve što je potrebno za smanjenje stresa. Ova stabla trebaju puno vode, puno sunca, blago kiselo tlo i povremeno opće gnojivo da bi bila njihova najzdravija. Pravi uvjeti obeshrabrit će rano ispuštanje plodova i pomoći drveću da se bolje odupre infekcijama i bolestima.

Također možete paziti na znakove bolesti ili štetočina na drveću i poduzeti korake za njihovo rano upravljanje kako biste minimalizirali štetu i pad voća. Provjerite s lokalnim rasadnikom da biste saznali koji su sprejevi najbolji za vašu voćku.

Druga strategija za očuvanje većeg broja voća na vašem ličiju je pakiranje voća. Mreža drži ptice sa drveća, ali ne i insekte. Vreće voća štiti ga od oboje. Da spakujete drvo ličija, upotrijebite bilo koju vrstu papirnate vrećice. Stavite vrećice oko pojedinačnih metlica otprilike šest tjedana nakon što je drvo potpuno procvjetalo (plodovi će biti dugački oko 3/4 inča ili 2 cm). Vreću možete osigurati na bilo koji način koji je najlakši, ali jednostavno je spajanjem ili vezivanjem oko stabljike dovoljno.

Istraživanje je pokazalo da vretanje drveta ličija vrijedi truda i troškova vrećica, jer značajno povećava prinos voća. Kao bonus, nećete trebati umrežiti cijelo drvo ili koristiti pesticide za odvraćanje insekata i ptica.

Ovaj je članak posljednji put ažuriran


Koliko vremena traje drveću liči za proizvodnju ličija?

Povezani članci

Dok gledate prema svom vrtu, primijetite da se ružičasto-crveni plodovi ličija lijepo razlikuju od zimzelenih listova drveta. Stablo ličija (Litchi chinensis), porijeklom iz jugoistočne Kine, izdržljivo je u zonama tvrdoće biljaka Ministarstva poljoprivrede SAD-a 10 i 11. Drveće ličija ne podnosi nikakav mraz, više voli lokaciju pored sunčanog zida, okrenutom jugu, zaštićenom vjetrom stvara toplu mikroklimu. Sporo rastuće drvo daje plodove veličine kuglice za ping pong nakon što se oljušte, otkrivaju bijelu, slatkastu unutrašnjost poput želea i veliko sjeme.


Kulturni zahtjevi

Pružanje drveću posebne nege efikasno je samo ako biljka već raste u optimalnim uslovima. Drveće ličija najbolje uspijeva u dijelovima kućnog vrta koji nude puno sunčeve svjetlosti, što je posebno značajno za zdrav cvat i rast voća. Ove zimzelene biljke uspijevaju u većini vrsta tla, pod uvjetom da je tlo vlažno i dobro drenirano. Idealan raspon pH je 5,0 do 7,5, jer alkalnost može dovesti do nedostatka željeza. Drveće ličija najuspješnije raste u zonama otpornosti biljaka Ministarstva poljoprivrede od 10a do 11.


Liči

Litchi chinensis Sonn.

Nephelium litchi Cambess

  • Opis
  • Porijeklo i distribucija
  • Sorte
  • Cvjetanje i oprašivanje
  • Klima
  • Tlo
  • Razmnožavanje
  • Berba
  • Prinos
  • Održavanje kvaliteta, skladištenja i otpreme
  • Sušenje ličija
  • Štetočine
  • Bolesti
  • Upotreba hrane
  • Ostala upotreba

Liči je najpoznatiji iz grupe jestivih plodova porodice sapunica, Sapindaceae. Botanički je označen Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Nephelium litchi Cambess) i nadaleko poznat kao liči, a regionalno kao liči, lišaj, laiči, pijavica ili liči. Profesor G. Weidman Groff, utjecajni autoritet iz nedavne prošlosti, pozvao je na njegovo usvajanje kao na približavanje izgovoru lokalnog imena u kantonu u Kini, vodećem centru proizvodnje ličija. Ovdje mu dajem prednost, jer pravopis najbolje ukazuje na željeni izgovor i pomaže u standardizaciji upotrebe engleskog jezika. Ljudi koji govore španski i portugalski govore voće lechia francuskim, litchi ili, na francuskom govornom području Haitija, quenepe chinois, razlikujući ga od quenepea, genija ili mamoncila iz Zapadne Indije, Melicoccus bijugatus, q.v. Njemačka riječ je litschi.

Ploča XXXII: LIH, Litchi chinensis
Opis Drvo ličija je zgodno, gusto, okruglastih, sporo rastućih, visokih 30 do 100 stopa (9-30 m) i jednako širokih. Njegovi zimzeleni listovi, dugi od 12,5-20 cm, perasti su, imaju 4 do 8 naizmjeničnih, eliptično duguljastih do kopljastih, naglo zašiljenih listića, donekle kožnih, glatkih, sjajnih, tamnozelenih na gornjoj površini i sivozeleni odozdo i dugi 5-7,5 cm. Sićušni, zelenkasto-bijeli do žućkasti cvjetovi bez latica nose se u završnim grozdovima dugim do 75 cm. Ekstraktni plodovi u rastresitim, privjesnim grozdovima od 2 do 30 obično su jagodnocrveni, ponekad ružičasti, ružičasti ili jantarni, a neke vrste prelaze u zeleno. Većina je aromatičnih, ovalnih, srcolikih ili gotovo okruglih, širine oko 2,5 cm i dužine 4 cm, tanke, kožne, grube ili sitno bradavičaste kože, fleksibilne i lako se ljušti kad su svježe . Neposredno ispod kože nekih sorti nalazi se mala količina bistrog, ukusnog soka. Sjajni, sočni, gusti, prozirno-bijeli do sivkasti ili ružičasti mesnati aril koji se obično lako odvaja od sjemena sugerira veliko, sočno grožđe. Okus mesa je subacidan i prepoznatljiv. Postoje velike razlike u veličini i obliku sjemena. Obično je duguljast, dug do 20 mm, tvrd, sjajne, tamnosmeđe dlake i iznutra je bijele boje. Neispravnim oprašivanjem mnoštvo plodova se smanjilo, samo djelomično razvilo sjeme (nazvano "pileći jezik") i takvo se voće cijeni zbog većeg udjela mesa. Za nekoliko dana voće prirodno dehidrira, koža postaje smeđa i lomljiva, a meso postaje suho, smežurano, tamnosmeđe i poput grožđica, bogatijeg i pomalo mošusnog okusa. Zbog čvrstoće ljuske sušenog voća, neupućeni su dobili nadimak "liči ili liči, orašasti plodovi", a ovo pogrešno ime dovelo je do mnogo nerazumijevanja prirode ovog vrlo poželjnog voća. Definitivno nije "orah", a sjeme je nejestivo.

Liči je porijeklom iz niskih uzvišenja provincija Kwangtung i Fukien u južnoj Kini, gdje posebno cvjeta uz rijeke i u blizini morske obale. Ima dugu i slavnu istoriju koja je bila hvaljena i slikana u kineskoj literaturi od najranijih poznatih zapisa 1059. godine. Kultivacija se širila godinama susjednim područjima jugoistočne Azije i obalnim ostrvima. Krajem 17. vijeka prenesen je u Burmu, a 100 godina kasnije u Indiju. U Zapadnu Indiju stigla je 1775. godine, sadila se u staklenicima u Engleskoj i Francuskoj početkom 19. vijeka, a Europljani su je odnijeli u Istočnu Indiju. Na Havaje je stigao 1873., a na Floridu 1883., a s Floride je prebačen u Kaliforniju 1897. Prvi put je rodio u Santa Barbari 1914. U 1920-ima je godišnji rod Kine iznosio 13,6 miliona kg. 1937. godine (prije Drugog svjetskog rata) urod samo provincije Fukien iznosio je preko 16 miliona kg. Vremenom je Indija postala druga nakon Kine u proizvodnji ličija, a ukupne površine zasadile su oko 30.000 hektara (12.500 ha). Opsežne sadnje postoje i u Pakistanu, Bangladešu, Burmi, bivšoj Indokini, Tajvanu, Japanu, Filipinima, Queenslandu, Madagaskaru, Brazilu i Južnoj Africi. Liči se uglavnom uzgajaju u dvorištima od sjevernog Queenslanda do Novog Južnog Walesa, ali komercijalni voćnjaci osnovani su u posljednjih 20 godina, a neki se sastoje od 5000 stabala.

Madagaskar je započeo eksperimentalne isporuke hladnjača ličija u Francusku 1960. godine. Zabilježeno je da su u Natalu u Južnoj Africi bila 18 stabala stara oko 6 godina. Druga su uvedena s Mauricijusa 1876. Slojeve ovih potonjih stabala distribuirala je Botanički vrtovi Durban i uzgoj ličija neprestano su se širili sve dok 1947. godine na jednom imanju nije bilo 5.000 drveća, a na drugom 5.000 novosađenih, što je ukupno bilo 40.000.

Na Havajima postoji mnogo drveća na dvorištu, ali komercijalni nasadi su mali. Voće se pojavljuje na lokalnim tržištima, a male količine se izvoze na kopno, ali liči je previše nepotreban da bi ga se moglo klasificirati kao kulturu sa ozbiljnim ekonomskim potencijalom. Umjesto toga, smatra se kombinacijom ukrasnog i voćnog drveća.

Postoji samo nekoliko raštrkanih stabala u Zapadnoj Indiji i Srednjoj Americi, osim nekih gajeva na Kubi, Hondurasu i Gvatemali. U Kaliforniji će liči rasti i plodovati samo na zaštićenim mjestima, a klima mu je općenito presuha. Postoji nekoliko vrlo starih stabala i jedan mali komercijalni gaj. Početkom šezdesetih godina prošlog stoljeća interes za ovu kulturu obnovljen je i vršeno je nekoliko novih zasada na navodnjavanom zemljištu.

Isprva se vjerovalo da liči nije dobro odgovarao Floridi zbog nedostatka zimskog mirovanja, izlažući uzastopne bljeskove nježnog novog rasta povremenim periodima niskih temperatura od decembra do marta. Najranije zasade na Sanfordu i Oviedu ubijene su jakim smrzavanjima. Korak napred došao je uvozom mladih stabala ličija iz Fukiena u Kini, od strane vlč. W.M. Brewster između 1903. i 1906. Ova sorta, stoljetna 'Chen-Tze' ili 'Royal Chen Purple', preimenovana u 'Brewster' na Floridi, sa sjeverne granice područja uzgoja ličija u Kini, podnosi lagani mraz i dokazala se biti vrlo uspješan u području Lake Placid-a - dijelu "Ridge" na Centralnoj Floridi.

Slojevito drveće bilo je dostupno u kraljevskim rasadnicima Reasoner-a početkom 1920-ih, a Reasoner's i Ministarstvo poljoprivrede SAD-a iznijeli su mnoštvo novih uvoda za suđenje. Ali nije bilo većih zasada dok pukovnik William R. Grove nije razvio poboljšani način razmnožavanja koji se upoznao s ličijem tokom vojne službe na Orijentu, povukao se iz vojske, i napravio svoj dom u Laurelu (23 milje južno od Sarasote , Florida), a ohrabrio ga je upućeni prof. G. Weidman Groff, koji je proveo 20 godina na Christian College u Cantonu. Pukovnik Grove je dogovorio zračenje stotina grana na nekim od starih, procvjetalih stabala 'Brewster' u Sebringu i Babson Parku i tako stekao zalihe za osnivanje svog gajića od ličija. Prvo drvo posadio je 1938. godine, a do 1940. prodavao je biljke ličija i promovirao liči kao komercijalnu kulturu. Mnogi mali voćnjaci zasađeni su od Merritt's Islanda do Homestead-a, a Udruženje uzgajivača Floride Lychee osnovano je 1952. godine, posebno za organizaciju zadružnog marketinga. Udruženje je službeno usvojilo pravopis "liči" na jaku preporuku profesora Groffa.

1960. godine preko 620 lbs (2.720 kg) otpremljeno je u New York, 4.000 lbs (1.814 kg) u Kaliforniju, skoro 6000 lbs (2.720 kg) u Kanadu i 3.900 lbs (1.769 kg) potrošeno je na Floridi, iako ovo je bila daleko od rekordne godine. Komercijalni usjev ličija na Floridi oscilirao je s vremenskim prilikama, pod utjecajem ne samo smrzavanja, već i suše i jakog vjetra. Proizvodnja je u velikoj mjeri smanjena 1959. godine, u manjoj mjeri 1963. godine, drastično je pala 1965. godine, dosegla je najviših 50.770 lbs (22.727 kg) 1970. godine, a najnižih 3.272 kg 74. 1974. Neki uzgajivači izgubili su do 70% uroda zbog jake hladnoće zimi 1979-80. Naravno, u kućnim vrtovima ima mnogo drveća koje rađa i koje nije zastupljeno u podacima o proizvodnji. Voće sa ovog drveća može biti namijenjeno samo za kućnu upotrebu ili ga na tom mjestu mogu kupiti kineski bakalnici ili operateri restorana ili prodati na štandovima uz cestu.

Iako je industrija ličija na Floridi mala, uglavnom zbog vremenskih opasnosti, nepravilnog nošenja i rada ručne berbe, privukla je veliku pažnju usjevima i doprinijela širenju sadnog materijala u druga područja zapadne hemisfere. Povećavanje vrijednosti zemljišta vjerovatno će ograničiti širenje zasada ličija u ovoj državi koja se brzo razvija. Još jedan ograničavajući faktor je to što je mnogo zemljišta pogodnog za kulturu ličija već posvećeno gajenju citrusa.

Profesor Groff u svojoj knjizi Liči i lungan govori nam da je proizvodnja vrhunskih vrsta ličija stvar velikog porodičnog ponosa i lokalnog rivalstva u Kini, gdje se voće cijeni kao nijedno drugo. 1492. godine u Annali of Fukien objavljen je popis od 40 sorti ličija, uglavnom nazvanih za porodice. U provincijama Kwang postojale su 22 vrste, 30 je popisano u Analima Kwangtung-a, a 70 se računalo kao sorte Ling Nam. Kinezi tvrde da je liči vrlo varijabilan u različitim kulturnim i zemljišnim uvjetima. Profesor Groff zaključio je da se može katalogizirati 40 ili 50 sorti koje su prepoznate u Kwangtungu, ali u toj provinciji je uzgajano samo 15 različitih, široko poznatih i komercijalnih sorti, od kojih je polovina sezonski prodavana u gradu Kantonu. Neki od njih su klasificirani kao "planinski" tipovi, većina su "tipovi vode" (uzgajani na niskom, dobro navodnjavanom zemljištu). Posebna je razlika između vrsta ličija koji propušta sok kad je koža slomljena i onih koji zadržavaju sok u mesu. Potonji se nazivaju "suvim i čistim" i vrlo su cijenjeni. Postoje velike razlike u obliku (okrugli, jajasti ili srcoliki), boji i teksturi kože, mirisu i ukusu, pa čak i boji mesa i količini "krpe" u sjemenskoj šupljini i glavnim sastojcima važnost, veličina i oblik sjemena.

Slijedi 15 sorti koje je profesor Groff prepoznao:

'No Mai Tsze', ili 'No mi ts' z '(lepljiva pirinač) vodeća je sorta u Kini, veliko, crveno, "suho i čisto" sjeme često sitno i smežurano. Jedno je od najboljih za sušenje i kasno je u sezoni. Najbolje se uspijeva kalemiti na planinski liči.

'Kwa Iuk' ili 'Kua lu' (viseće zeleno) poznati je liči, velik, crven sa zelenim vrhom i tipičnom zelenom linijom "suho i čisto", izvanrednog okusa i mirisa. Bilo je to, u stara vremena, posebno voće za predstavljanje visokim zvaničnicima i drugim osobama na počasnim položajima. Profesor Groff dobio je jedan plod u maloj crvenoj kutiji!

'Kwai mi' ili 'Kuei Wei' (okus cimeta) koji se počeo zvati 'Mauricijus' manji je, srcolikog oblika, s grubom crvenom kožicom obojenom zelenom bojom na ramenima i obično tankom linijom koja prolazi oko ploda. Sjeme je malo, a meso vrlo slatko i mirisno. Grane drveta savijaju se prema gore na vrhovima, a listići se uvijaju prema unutra od srednje vrške.

'Hsiang li', ili 'Heung lai' (mirisni liči) dom je drveta sa prepoznatljivom uspravnom navikom koja ima prema gore usmjerene listove. Plod je sitan, vrlo grub i bodljikav, tamnocrven, sa najmanje sjemenki, a meso je vrhunskog okusa i mirisa. Kasno je u sezoni. Oni koji se uzgajaju u Sin Hsingu bolji su od onih koji se uzgajaju na drugim lokacijama.

'Hsi Chio tsu', ili 'Sai kok tsz' (rog nosoroga) nosi veliko drvo koje raste. Plod je krupan, hrapav, u osnovi širok, a na vrhu uski, donekle žilav i vlaknast, ali mirisnog, slatkog mesa. Sazrijeva rano.

'Hak ip', ili 'Hei yeh' (crni list) nosi gusto razgranato drvo s velikim, šiljastim, blago uvijenim, tamnozelenim listićima. Plod je srednje crven, ponekad sa zelenim nijansama, širokih ramena, tanke, meke kože, a meso, povremeno ružičasto, oštro i slatko. Ovo je ocijenjeno kao "jedan od najboljih 'vodenih' ličija."

'Fei tsu hsiao', ili 'Fi tsz siu' (smijeh ili osmijeh carske konkubine) je veliko, jantarne boje, tanke kože, vrlo slatkog, vrlo mirisnog mesa. Sjeme varira od velikog do vrlo malog. Sazrijeva rano.

'T' ang po ', ili' T 'ong pok' (nasip jezerca) je od stabla sitnih listova. Plod je sitan, crven, hrapav, s tankim, sočnim kiselim mesom i vrlo malo krpe. Vrlo je rana sorta.

'Sheung shu wai' ili 'Shang hou huai', (predsjednik zagrljaja odbora) leži na drveću sitnih lišća. Plod je krupan, zaobljen, crven, s mnogo tamnih mrlja. Ima slatko meso sa malo mirisa, a veličina semena je promenljiva. Kasno je u sezoni.

'Ch'u ma lsu' ili 'Chu ma lsz' (kinesko travna vlakna) ima prepoznatljivo, bujno lišće. Listovi su veliki, preklapaju se, s dugim peteljkama. Plodovi su krupni sa istaknutim plećima i hrapavom kožicom, duboko crvene boje iznutra. Iako je vrlo mirisno, meso je slabijeg okusa i prianja uz sjeme koje varira od velikog do malog.

'Ta tsao', ili 'Tai tso' (veliki usjev) široko se uzgaja oko kantona, pomalo jajaste kože, hrapave, jarkocrvene boje s puno malih, gustih točkica, meso čvrsto, oštro, slatko, slabo prošarano žutom bojom u blizini velikog sjemena . Sok curi kad je koža slomljena. Plod sazrijeva rano.

'Huai chih', ili 'Wai chi' (liči na rijeci Wai) ima srednje velike, tupe listove. Plod je okrugao sa srednje glatkom kožicom, bogate crvene boje izvana, ružičaste iznutra i soka koji curi. Ovo nije sorta visoke klase, ali najčešće uzgajana, visoko rodna i kasna u sezoni.

'San yueh hang', ili 'Sam ut hung' (treći mjesec crvene boje), također nazvan 'Ma yuen', 'Ma un', 'Tsao kuo', 'Tso kwo', 'Tsao li' ili 'Tsoli' ( rani liči) uzgaja se uz nasipe. Grane su lomljive i lako se lome, a listovi su dugi, šiljasti i gusti. Plod je vrlo krupan, crvene, guste, žilave ljuske i gustog, srednje slatkog mesa s puno krpe. Sjeme je dugo, ali je pobačeno. Ova sorta je popularna uglavnom jer sezona dolazi vrlo rano.

'Pai la li chih', ili 'Pak lap lai chi' (bijeli voštani liči), koji se naziva i 'Po le tzu', ili 'Pak lik tsz (bijela mirisna biljka), velik je, ružičast, hrapav, s ružičastim, vlaknastim , ne baš slatko meso i veliko sjeme. Sazrijeva vrlo kasno, nakon 'Huai chih'.

'Shan chi', ili 'Shan chih' (planinski liči), koji se naziva i 'Suan chih', ili 'Sun chi' (kiseli liči) raste samoniklo u brdima i često se sadi kao podloga za bolje sorte. Stablo je uspravnog staništa sa uspravnim grančicama i velikim, šiljastim, kratko peteljkastim lišćem. Plod je jarkocrvene boje, izdužen, vrlo hrapav, tankog mesa, kiselinskog okusa i krupnog sjemena.

'T'im ngam', ili 'T'ien yeh' (slatka litica) je uobičajena sorta ličija za koju je profesor Groff izvijestio da se prilično uzgaja u Kwantungu, ali zapravo ne na komercijalnoj osnovi.

U svojoj knjizi The Litchi, dr. Lal Behari Singh napisao je da je Bihar središte kulture ličija u Indiji, proizvodeći 33 odabrane sorte razvrstane u 15 grupa. Skratio sam njegove izuzetno detaljne opise 10 sorti preporučenih za veliki uzgoj (uz nekoliko dodataka u zagradama iz drugih izvora):

'Rano bez sjemena', ili 'Rano Bedana'. Plod dug 1 1/3 in (3,4 cm), srcolikog do ovalnog hrapavog, crvenog, sa zelenim međuprostorima, čvrstom i kožnatim mesom [slonovače] do bijelog, mekog, slatkog sjemena skupljenog, poput psećeg zuba. Dobra kvaliteta. Stablo rađa umjeren rod, rano u sezoni.

'Miris ruže'. Plod 1 1/4 in (3,2 cm) dugog zaobljenog srca, blago hrapavog, ljubičasto-ružičastog, blago čvrstog mesa kože, sivo-bijelo, mekano, vrlo slatko. Sjeme okruglasto jajasto, potpuno razvijeno. Dobra kvaliteta. [Drvo daje umjereni urod] sredinom sezone.

'Rano velika crvena'. Voće dugo nešto više od 3,4 cm, obično ukoso srcoliko grimizno [sa karminom], sa zelenim međuprostorima vrlo grube kože vrlo čvrste i kožne, malo prianjajuće za meso. Meso sivo-bijelo, čvrsto, slatko i aromatično. Vrlo dobre kvalitete. [Drvo je umjereni nosač], rano u sezoni.

'Dehra Dun', [ili 'Dehra Dhun']. Voće duljine manje od 1 1/2 in (4 cm) ukoso srcolikog oblika do konusne mješavine crvene i narančasto-crvene kožice grube, kožaste kože sivo-bijele boje, mekog, dobrog, slatkog okusa. Sjeme se često skuplja, povremeno vrlo malo. Kvalitetne srednje sezone. [Ovo se intenzivno uzgaja u Uttar Pradeshu i najzadovoljniji je liči u Pakistanu.]

'Kasno dugo crveno' ili 'Muzaffarpur'. Voće dugo manje od 1 cm (4 cm) obično je duguljasto-stožaste tamnocrvene boje sa zelenkastim međuprostorima. Koža je gruba, čvrsta i kožasta, blago prianjajući na meso, sivo-bijelo, mekano, dobrog, slatkog okusa. Sjeme cilindrično, potpuno razvijeno. Dobra kvaliteta. [Drvo je težak nosilac], kasno u sezoni.

'Pyazi'. Plod dug 1 1/3 in (3,4 cm) duguljasto-konusne do srcolike mješavine narandžaste i narančasto-crvene, sa žućkasto-crvenim, ne baš istaknutim tuberkulama. Koža je kožasta, prianjajućeg mesa sivo-bijela, čvrsta, blago slatkasta, s okusom koji podsjeća na "kuvani luk". Sjeme cilindrično, potpuno razvijeno. Lošeg kvaliteta. Rano u sezoni.

'Ekstra rano zeleno'. Plod dugačak 1 1/4 in (3,2 cm), uglavnom u obliku srca, rijetko zaobljen ili duguljast, žućkasto-crven sa zelenim međuprostorima, kožica blago hrapava, kožasta, blago prianjajućeg mesa, kremasto-bijela, [čvrstog, dobrog, blago kiselkastog okusa] sjeme duguljaste, cilindrične ili ravne. Indiferentnog kvaliteta. Vrlo rano u sezoni.

'Kalkattia', ['Calcuttia' ili 'Calcutta']. Plod 1 1/2 in (4 cm) duguljaste ili jednostrano ružičastocrvene boje s tamnijom kožicom, vrlo gruba, kožasta, blago prianjajućeg mesa, sivkasto slonovače, čvrsta, vrlo slatkog, dobrog okusa. Sjeme duguljasto ili konkavno. Vrlo dobre kvalitete. [Teški nosač izdržava vruće vjetrove]. Vrlo kasno u sezoni.

'Gulabi'. Plod 1 1/3 in (3,4 cm) dugog srca, ovalnog ili duguljastog ružičasto-crvenog do karmin s kožom narandžasto-crvenih tuberkula, vrlo hrapavo, kožasto, neljepljivo meso sivo-bijelo, čvrsto, sjemena dugog okusa subakiseline -cilindrična, potpuno razvijena. Vrlo dobre kvalitete. Kasno u sezoni.

'Kasno bez sjemena' ili 'Kasna bedana'. Voće duljine manje od 3/5 in (3,65 cm), uglavnom konusno, rijetko jajasto narančasto-crveno do karminsko, sa crno-smeđim tuberkulama, gruba, čvrsta, neljepljiva mesa, kremasto-bijela, meka, vrlo slatka, vrlo dobrog okusa, osim zbog lagane gorčine u blizini sjemena. Sjeme je malo vretenasto ili poput psećeg zuba nerazvijeno. Vrlo dobre kvalitete. [Drvo teško nosi. Podnosi vruće vjetrove.] Kasno u sezoni.

Brojni su voćnjaci ličija u submontanskom području Pendžaba. Vodeća sorta je:

'Panjore zajednički'. Voće je krupno, srcolikog oblika, duboko narančaste do ružičaste boje je hrapavo, vrlo tanko, sposobno za cijepanje. Drvo snažno rađa i ima najdužu sezonu ploda - čitav mjesec koji počinje krajem maja. Šest drugih sorti koje se tamo često uzgajaju su: „Miris ruže“, „Bhadwari“, „Bez sjemena br. 1“, „Bez sjemenja br. 2“, „Dehra Dun“ i „Kalkattia“.

U Južnoj Africi se komercijalno proizvodi samo jedna sorta. To je „Kwai Mi“, ali se lokalno naziva „Mauricijus“, jer su gotovo sva stabla potomci onih dovedenih s tog ostrva. U Južnoj Africi plod je srednje veličine, gotovo okrugao, ali blago ovalni, crvenkasto-smeđi. Meso je čvrsto, dobrog kvaliteta i obično sadrži sjeme srednje veličine, ali određeni plodovi širokih, ravnih koštica i skraćenog oblika imaju sjeme "pilećeg jezika".

Bilo je mnogo drugih uvođenja u Južnu Afriku iz Kine i Indije, ali većina nije uspjela preživjeti. 1928. godine u Lowe's Orchards, Southport, Natal zasađeno je 16 sorti iz Indije, ali su zapisi izgubljeni i ostali su neimenovani. Sortni voćnjak Litchi od 26 sorata iz Indije, Kine, Tajvana i drugdje uspostavljen je na istraživačkoj stanici suptropske hortikulture u Nelspruitu. Okvirne klasifikacije svrstale su ih u 3 različita tipa - „Kwai Mi“ [„Mauricijus“], „Hak Ip“ (visokokvalitetnog i sitnog sjemena, ali sramežljivi nosač u niskom polju) i „Madras“, teški nosač odabrano voće, svijetlocrveno, vrlo grubo i s velikim sjemenkama, ali vrlo slatkog, sočnog mesa.

Prvi liči uveden na Havaje bio je 'Kwai Mi', kao i drugi uvod nekoliko godina kasnije. Visoka kvaliteta ove sorte (koja se ponekad naziva lokalno 'Charlie Long') dovela je do toga da je liči postao izuzetno popularan i široko zasađen. Havajska poljoprivredna eksperimentalna stanica uvozila je 3 stabla „Brewster“ 1907. godine, a uloženi su različiti napori da se iz Kine donesu i druge vrste, ali nisu sve preživjele. Ukupno 16 sorti postalo je dobro uspostavljeno na Havajima, uključujući „Hak Ip“ koja je po važnosti postala druga nakon „Kwai Mi“.

Godine 1942., Poljoprivredna eksperimentalna stanica postavila je kolekciju od 500 sadnica 'Kwai Mi', 'Hak Ip' i 'Brewster' s ciljem odabira drveća koja pokazuju najbolje performanse. Jedno drvo izvanrednog karaktera (sadnica 'Hak Ip') prvo je označeno kao H.A.E.S. Izbor 1-18-3 i dobio je ime 'Groff' 1953. Stalni je nosilac, kasno u sezoni. Plod je srednje veličine, tamno ružičastocrven sa zelenim ili žućkastim nijansama na vrhu svake gomolje. Meso je bijelo i čvrsto, ne curi sok, okus je odličan, slatka i slaba kiselina, većina plodova ima abortivno sjeme, "kokošji jezik", i u skladu s tim ima 20% više mesa nego da je sjeme potpuno razvijeno.

'No Mai Tsze' raste na Havajima više od 40 godina, ali je dao vrlo malo plodova. 'Pat Po Heung' (osam dragocjenih mirisa), pogrešno nazvan "Pat Po Hung" (osam dragocjenih crvenih), pomalo podsjeća na "No Mai Tsze", ali je manji, koža je ljubičasto-crvena, tanka i savitljiva kad sok procuri kada koža slomljeno meso je mekano, sočno, slatko, čak i kad malo nezrelo sjeme varira od srednje do velike. Stablo je sporo rastuće i slabe, raširene navike koje dobro nosi na Havajima. Ipak, obično se ne sadi.

'Kaimana', ili 'Poamoho', otvoreno oprašena sadnica 'Hak Ip', koju je razvio dr. R.A. Hamilton na eksperimentalnoj stanici Poamoho, Univerziteta na Havajima, pušten je 1982. Voće je podsjećalo na "Kwai Mi", ali je dvostruko veće, tamnocrvene boje, visokokvalitetno, a drvo je redoviti nosilac.

'Brewster' je velik, konusnog ili klinastog oblika, crven, mekog mesa, više kiseline od onog u 'Kwai mi', a sjeme je vrlo često potpuno oblikovano i veliko. Leci su ravni, blago zakrivljenih margina i sužavaju se do oštre tačke.

Bilo je mnogo drugih unosa sjemena, sadnica, reznica ili slojeva zraka u Sjedinjene Države, od 1902. do 1924. godine, uglavnom iz Kine, također iz Indije i Havaja, te nekoliko iz Jave, Kube i Trinidada, koje su podijeljene eksperimentatorima na Floridi i Kaliforniji, a neki i u botaničke vrtove u drugim državama, te na Kubu, Portoriko, Panamu, Honduras, Kostariku i Brazil. Mnogo ih je ubilo hladno vrijeme u Kaliforniji i na Floridi.

1908. Ministarstvo poljoprivrede Sjedinjenih Država donijelo je 27 biljaka "Kwai mi". Istodobno je uvezeno 20 biljaka "Hak Ip" koje su poslane Georgeu B. Cellonu u Miamiju 1918. godine. Drvo "Bedane" uvedeno je iz Indije 1913. Godine 1920. profesor Groff nabavio je sadnice 'Shan Chi' (planinski liči) iz provincije Kwantung, zajedno sa slojevima zraka 'Sheung shu wai', 'No mai ts' z 'i' T 'im ngam' (slatka litica). Utvrđeno je da ovaj potonji rodi redovnije od „Brewstera“, ali je pokazivao prehrambene nedostatke u krečnjačkom tlu.

Većina različitih biljaka i ukorijenjenih reznica od njih podijeljeni su na probu, a ostatak je držan u staklenicima američkog Ministarstva poljoprivrede u Marylandu.

'Bengal' - Američko Ministarstvo poljoprivrede je 1929. godine od Kalkute dobilo malu biljku ličija, koja je navodno bila sadnica mirisa ruže. Posađeno je na stanici za uvođenje biljaka u Miamiju i počelo je rađati 1940. Plodovi su nalikovali na "Brewster", ali bili su izduženiji, bili su doma u velikim grozdovima, a meso je bilo čvrsto i nije gubilo sok kad se oljušti. Sve plodove imale su potpuno razvijeno sjeme, ali manje proporcionalno mesu od one od „Brewstera“. Stablo se širi više nego kod 'Brewstera', ima veće, kožaste, tamnozelene listove, a kora je glađa i bljeđa. Izvorno drvo i njegovo zračno slojno potomstvo nisu pokazali hlorozu na krečnjaku za razliku od drveća 'Brewster' koje raste u blizini.

'Peerless', za koji se vjeruje da je sadnica 'Brewstera', porijeklom iz rasadnika kraljevske palme u Onecu, presađen je u T.R. Estate Palmer u Belleairu, gdje je C.E. Ware primijetio od 1936. do 1938. da je rodio veće plodove, svjetlije boje i veći postotak abortivnog sjemena od „Brewstera“. 1938. Ware je slojem zraka uklonio 200 grana, kupio je drvo i preselio ga na svoje imanje u Clearwateru. Nastavio je s plodonosom 1940. godine, a godišnji usjevi zabilježeni do 1956. godine pokazali su dobru produktivnost - u prosjeku 174 kg (173 kg) godišnje, a stopa abortivnog sjemena kretala se od 62% do 85%. 200 slojeva zraka posadio je Ware 1942. godine, a počeo je rađati 1946. godine. Većina plodova imala je potpuno razvijeno sjeme, ali stopa abortivnog sjemena povećavala se iz godine u godinu i 1950. godine iznosila je 61% do 70%. Kultivar je dobio ime uz odobrenje Udruženja uzgajivača Florida Lychee. Dvije selekcije sadnica pukovnika Grovea, 'Yellow Red' i 'Late Globe', prof. Groff vjerovao je da su prirodni hibridi 'Brewster' ´ 'Mountain'.

U sjevernom Queenslandu 'Kwai Mi' je najranija sorta koja se uzgaja, a oko 10% plodova ima sjeme "pilećeg jezika". 'Brewster' rađa sredinom sezone i važan je iako je sjeme gotovo uvijek u potpunosti oblikovano i veliko. 'Hak Ip' je tamo i srednjesezonski i s velikim sjemenom. 'Bedana' se uzgaja samo u kućnim vrtovima, a plodovi imaju veliko sjeme za razliku od uobičajenih sjemenki plodova ove sorte "indijski pileći jezik" rođenih u Indiji.

'Wai Chi' je kasna sezona (decembar), ima male, okrugle plodove, u osnovi žute prekrivene crvenom, sjeme je malo i ovalno. Stablo je vrlo kompaktno s uspravnim granama i preferira hladniju klimu od one na primorskom sjevernom Queenslandu gdje ne plodi jako. Leci su konkavni poput onih u "Kwai Mi".

Vrlo slična, možda identična sorta nazvana 'Hong Kong' uzgaja se u Južnom Queenslandu. 'No Mai' slabo rodi u Queenslandu i čini se da je bolje prilagođen hladnijim područjima.

Postoje 3 vrste cvjetova koji se pojavljuju u nepravilnom slijedu ili, ponekad, istovremeno, u cvjetu ličija: a) muški b) hermafrodit, plodi kao žensko (oko 30% od ukupnog broja) c) hermafrodit koji plodi kao mužjak. Potonji imaju tendenciju da posjeduju najživlji polen. Many of the flowers have defective pollen and this fact probably is the main cause of the abortive seeds and also the common problem of shedding of young fruits. The flowers require transfer of pollen by insects.

In India, L.B. Singh recorded 11 species of bees, flies, wasps and other insects as visiting lychee flowers for nectar. But honeybees, mostly Apis cerana indica, A. dorsata and A. florea, constitute 78% of the lychee-pollinating insects and they work the flowers for pollen and nectar from sunrise to sundown. A. cerana is the only hive bee and is essential in commercial orchards for maximum fruit production.

A 6-week survey in Florida revealed 27 species of lychee-flower visitors, representing 6 different insect Orders. Most abundant, morning and afternoon, was the secondary screw-worm fly (Callitroga macellaria), an undesirable pest. Next was the imported honeybee (Apis mellifera) seeking nectar daily but only during the morning and apparently not interested in the pollen. No wild bees were seen on the lychee flowers, though wild bees were found in large numbers collecting pollen in an adjacent fruit-tree planting a few weeks later. Third in order, but not abundant, was the soldier beetle (Chauliognathus marginatus). The rest of the insect visitors were present only in insignificant number. Maintenance of bee hives in Florida lychee groves is necessary to enhance fruit set and development. The fruits mature 2 months after flowering.

In India and Hawaii, there has been some interest in possible cross-breeding of the lychee and pollen storage tests have been conducted. Lychee pollen has remained viable at room temperature for 10 to 30 days in petri dishes for 3 to 5 months in desiccators 15 months at 32° F (0° C) and 25% relative humidity in desiccators and 31 months under deep-freeze, -9.4° F (-23° C). There is considerable variation in the germination rates of pollen from different cultivars. In India, 'Rose Scented' has shown mean viability of 61.99% compared with 42.52% in 'Khattl'.

Groff provided a clear view of the climatic requirements of the lychee. He said that it thrives best in regions "not subject to heavy frost but cool and dry enough in the winter months to provide a period of rest." In China and India, it is grown between 15° and 30° N. "The Canton delta . is crossed by the Tropic of Cancer and is a subtropical area of considerable range in climate. Great fluctuations of temperature are common throughout the fall and winter months. In the winter sudden rises of temperature will at times cause the lychee . to flush forth . new growth. This new growth is seldom subject to a freeze about Canton. On the higher elevations of the mountain regions which are subject to frost the lychee is seldom grown . . . The more hardy mountainous types of the lychee are very sour and those grown near salt water are said to be likewise. The lychee thrives best on the lower plains where the summer months are hot and wet and the winter months are dry and cool."

Heavy frosts will kill young trees but mature trees can withstand light frosts. Cold tolerance of the lychee is intermediate between that of the sweet orange on one hand and mango and avocado on the other. Location, land slope, and proximity to bodies of water can make a great difference in degree of damage by freezing weather. In the severe low temperature crisis during the winter of 1957-58, the effects ranged from minimal to total throughout central and southern Florida. A grove of 12-to 14-year-old trees south of Sanford was killed back nearly to the ground on Merritt Island trees of the same age were virtually undamaged, while a commercial mango planting was totally destroyed. L.B. Singh resists the common belief that the lychee needs winter cold spells that provide periods of temperature between 30° and 40° F (-1.11° and 4.44° C) because it does well in Mauritius where the temperature is never below 40° F (-1.11° C). However, lychee trees in Panama, Jamaica, and other tropical areas set fruit only occasionally or not at all.

Heavy rain or fog during the flowering period is detrimental, as are hot, dry, strong winds which cause shedding of flowers, also splitting of the fruit skin. Splitting occurs, too, during spells of alternating rain and hot, dry periods, especially on the sunny side of the tree. Spraying with Ethephon at 10 ppm reduced splitting in 'Early Large Red' in experiments in Nepal.

The lychee grows well on a wide range of soils. In China it is cultivated in sandy or clayey loam, "river mud", moist sandy clay, and even heavy clay. The pH should be between 6 and 7. If the soil is deficient in lime, this must be added. However, in an early experiment in a greenhouse in Washington, D.C., seedlings planted in acid soil showed superior growth and the roots had many nodules filled with mycorrhizal fungi. This caused some to speculate that inoculation might be desirable. Later, in Florida, profuse nodulation was observed on roots of lychee seedlings that had not been inoculated but merely grown in pots of sphagnum moss and given a well-balanced nutrient solution.

The lychee attains maximum growth and productivity on deep alluvial loam but flourishes in extreme southern Florida on oolitic limestone providing it is put in an adequate hole and irrigated in dry seasons.

The Chinese often plant the lychee on the banks of ponds and streams. In low, wet land, they dig ditches 10 to 15 ft (3-4.5 m) wide and 30 to 40 ft (9-12 m) apart, using the excavated soil to form raised beds on which they plant lychee trees, so that they have perfect drainage but the soil is always moist. Though the lychee has a high water requirement, it cannot stand water-logging. The water table should be at least 4 to 6 ft (1.2-1.8 m) below the surface and the underground water should be moving inasmuch as stagnant water induces root rot. The lychee can stand occasionally brief flooding better than citrus. It will not thrive under saline conditions.

Lychees do not reproduce faithfully from seed, and the choicest have abortive, not viable, seed. Furthermore, lychee seeds remain viable only 4 to 5 days, and seedling trees will not bear until they are 5 to 12, or even 25, years old. For these reasons, seeds are planted mostly for selection and breeding purposes or for rootstock.

Attempts to grow the lychee from cuttings have been generally discouraging, though 80% success has been claimed with spring cuttings in full sun, under constant mist and given weekly liquid nutrients. Ground-layering has been practiced to some extent. In China, air-layering (marcotting, or gootee) is the most popular means of propagation and has been practiced for ages. By their method, a branch of a chosen tree is girdled, allowed to callus for 1 to 2 days and then is enclosed in a ball of sticky mud mixed with chopped straw or dry leaves and wrapped with burlap. With frequent watering, roots develop in the mud and, in about 100 days, the branch is cut off, the ball of earth is increased to about 12 in (30 cm) in width, and the air-layer is kept in a sheltered nursery for a little over a year, then gradually exposed to full sun before it is set out in the orchard. Some air-layers are planted in large clay pots and grown as ornamentals.

The Chinese method of air-layering has many variations. In fact, 92 modifications have been recorded and experimented with in Hawaii. Inarching is also an ancient custom, selected cultivars being joined to 'Mountain' lychee rootstock.

In order to make air-layering less labor-intensive, to eliminate the watering, and also to produce portable, shippable layers, Colonel Grove, after much experimentation, developed the technique of packing the girdle with wet sphagnum moss and soil, wrapping it in moisture-proof clear plastic that permits exchange of air and gasses, and tightly securing it above and below. In about 6 weeks, sufficient roots are formed to permit detaching of the layer, removal of the plastic wrap, and planting in soil in nursery containers. It is possible to air-layer branches up to 4 in (10 cm) thick, and to take 200 to 300 layers from a large tree.

Studies in Mexico have led to the conclusion that, for maximum root formation, branches to be air-layered should not be less than 5/8 in (15 mm) in diameter, and, to avoid undue defoliation of the parent tree, should not exceed 3/4 in (20 mm). The branches, of any age, around the periphery of the canopy and exposed to the sun, make better air-layers with greater root development than branches taken from shaded positions on the tree. The application of growth regulators, at various rates, has shown no significant effect on root development in the Mexican experiments. In India, certain of the various auxins tried stimulated root formation, forced early maturity of the layers, but contributed to high mortality. South African horticulturists believe that tying the branch up so that it is nearly vertical induces vigorous rooting.

The new trees, with about half of the top trimmed off and supported by stakes, are kept in a shadehouse for 6 weeks before setting out. Improvements in Colonel Grove's system later included the use of constant mist in the shadehouse. Also, it was found that birds pecked at the young roots showing through the transparent wrapping, made holes in the plastic and caused dehydration. It became necessary to shield the air-layers with a cylinder of newspaper or aluminum foil. As time went on, some people switched to foil in place of plastic for wrapping the air-layers.

The air-layered trees will fruit in 2 to 5 years after planting, Professor Groff said that a lychee tree is not in its prime until it is 20 to 40 years old will continue bearing a good crop for 100 years or longer. One disadvantage of air-layering is that the resultant trees have weak root systems. In China, a crude method of cleft-grafting has long been employed for special purposes, but, generally speaking, the lychee has been considered very difficult to graft. Bark, tongue, cleft, and side-veneer grafting, also chip-and shield-budding, have been tried by various experimenters in Florida, Hawaii, South Africa and elsewhere with varing degrees of success. The lychee is peculiar in that the entire cambium is active only during the earliest phases of secondary growth. The use of very young rootstocks, only 1/4 in (6 mm) in diameter and wrapping the union with strips of vinyl plastic film, have given good results. A 70% success rate has been achieved in splice-grafting in South Africa. Hardened-off, not terminal, wood of young branches 1/4 in (6 mm) thick is first ringed and the bark-ring removed. After a delay of 21 days, the branch is cut off at the ring, defoliated but leaving the base of each petiole, then a slanting cut is made in the rootstock 1 ft (30 cm) above the soil, at the point where it matches the thickness of the graftwood (scion), and retaining as many leaves as possible. The cut is trimmed to a perfectly smooth surface 1 in (2.5 cm) long the scion is then trimmed to 4 in (10 cm) long, making a slanting cut to match that on the rootstock. The scion should have 2 slightly swollen buds. After joining the scion and the rootstock, the union is wrapped with plastic grafting tape and the scion is completely covered with grafting strips to prevent dehydration. In 6 weeks the buds begin to swell, and the plastic is slit just above the bud to permit sprouting. When the new growth has hardened off, all the grafting tape is removed. The grafting is performed in a moist, warm atmosphere. The grafted plants are maintained in containers for 2 years or more before planting out, and they develop strong taproots.

In India, a more recent development is propagation by stooling, which has been found "simpler, quicker and more economical" there than air-layering. First, air-layers from superior trees are planted 4 ft (1.2 m) apart in "stool beds" where enriched holes have been prepared and left open for 2 weeks. Fertilizer is applied when planting (at the beginning of September) and the air-layers are well established by mid-October and putting out new flushes of growth in November. Fertilizer is applied again in February-March and June-July. Shallow cultivation is performed to keep the plot weed-free. At the end of 2 1/2 years, in mid-February, the plants are cut back to 10 in (25 cm) from the ground. New shoots from the trunk are allowed to grow for 4 months. In mid-June, a ring of bark is removed from all shoots except one on each plant and lanolin paste containing IBA (2,500 ppm) is applied to the upper portion of the ringed area. Ten days later, earth is heaped up to cover 4 to 6 in (10-15 cm) of the stem above the ring. This causes the shoots to root profusely in 2 months. The rooted shoots are separated from the plant and are immediately planted in nursery beds or pots. Those which do not wilt in 3 weeks are judged suitable for setting out in the field. The earth around the parent plants is leveled and the process of fertilization, cultivation, ringing and earthing-up and harvesting of stools is repeated over and over for years until the parent plants have lost their vitality. It is reported that the transplanted shoots have a survival rate of 81-82% as compared with 40% to 50% in air-layers.

Spacing: For a permanent orchard, the trees are best spaced 40 ft (12 m) apart each way. In India, a 30 ft spacing is considered adequate, probably because the drier climate limits the overall growth. Portions of the tree shaded by other trees will not bear fruit. For maximum productivity, there must be full exposure to light on all sides.

In the Cook Islands, the trees are planted on a 40 x 20 ft (12 x 6 m) spacing–56 trees per acre (134 per ha)–but in the 15th year, the plantation is thinned to 40 x 40 ft (12 x l2 m).

Wind protection: Young trees benefit greatly by wind protection. This can be provided by placing stakes around each small tree and stretching cloth around them as a windscreen. In very windy locations, the entire plantation may be protected by trees planted as windbreaks but these should not be so close as to shade the lychees. The lychee tree is structurally highly wind-resistant, having withstood typhoons, but shelter may be needed to safeguard the crop. During dry, hot months, lychee trees of any age will benefit from overhead sprinkling they are seriously retarded by water stress.

Fertilization: Newly planted trees must be watered but not fertilized beyond the enrichment of the hole well in advance of planting. In China, lychee trees are fertilized only twice a year and only organic material is used, principally night soil, sometimes with the addition of soybean or peanut residue after oil extraction, or mud from canals and fish ponds. There is no great emphasis on fertilization in India. It has been established that a harvest of 1,000 lbs (454.5 kg) removes approximately 3 lbs (1,361 g) K 2 O, 1 lb (454 g) P 2 O 5 , 1 lb (454 g) N, 3/4 lb (340 g) CaO, and 1/2 lb (228 g) MgO from the soil. It is judged, therefore, that applications of potash, phosphate, lime and magnesium should be made to restore these elements.

Fertilizer experiments on fine sand in central Florida have shown that medium rates of N (either sulfate of ammonia or ammonium nitrate), P 2 O 5 , K 2 O, and MgO, together with one application of dolomite limestone at 2 tons/acre (4.8 tons/ha) are beneficial in counteracting chlorosis and promoting growth, flowering and fruit-set and reducing early fruit shedding. Excessive use of nitrogen suppresses growth and interferes with the uptake of other nutrients. If vegetative dormancy is to be encouraged in bearing trees, fertilizer should be withheld in fall and early winter.

In limestone soil, it may be necessary to spread chelated iron 2 or 3 times a year to avoid chlorosis. Zinc deficiency is evidenced by bronzing of the leaves. It is corrected by a foliar spray of 8 lbs (3.5 kg) zinc sulphate and 4 lbs (1.8 kg) hydrated lime in 48 qts (45 liters) of water. Because of the very shallow root system of the lychee, a surface mulch is very beneficial in hot weather.

Pruning: Ordinarily, the tree is not pruned after the judicious shaping of the young plant, because the clipping off of a branch tip with each cluster of fruits is sufficient to promote new growth for the next crop. Severe pruning of old trees may be done to increase fruit size and yield for at least a few years.

Girdling: The Indian farmer may girdle the branches or trunk of his lychee trees in September to enhance flowering and fruiting. Tests on 'Brewster' in Hawaii confirmed the much higher yield obtained from branches girdled in September. Girdling of trees that begin to flush in October and November is ineffective. Similar trials in Florida showed increased yield of trees that had poor crops the previous year, but there was no significant increase in trees that had been heavy bearers. Furthermore, many branches were weakened or killed by girdling. Repeated girdling as a regular practice would probably seriously interfere with overall growth and productivity.

Indian horticulturists warn that girdling in alternate years, or girdling just half of the tree, may be preferable to annual girdling and that, in any case, heavy fertilization and irrigation should precede girdling. Fall spraying of growth inhibitors has not been found to increase yields.

For home use or for local markets, lychees are harvested when fully colored for shipment, when only partly colored. The final swelling of the fruit causes the protuberances on the skin to be less crowded and to slightly flatten out, thus an experienced picker will recognize the stage of full maturity. The fruits are rarely picked singly except for immediate eating out-of-hand, because the stem does not normally detach without breaking the skin and that causes the fruit to spoil quickly. The clusters are usually clipped with a portion of stem and a few leaves attached to prolong freshness. Individual fruits are later clipped from the cluster leaving a stub of stem attached. Harvesting may need to be done every 3 to 4 days over a period of 3-4 weeks. It is never done right after rain, as the wet fruit is very perishable. The lychee tree is not very suitable for the use of ladders. High clusters are usually harvested by metal or bamboo pruning poles. A worker can harvest 55 lbs (25 kg) of fruits per hour.

The yield varies with the cultivar, age, weather, presence of pollinators, and cultural practices. In India, a 5-year-old tree may produce 500 fruits, a 20-year-old tree 4,000 to 5,000 fruits–160 to 330 lbs (72.5-149.6 kg). Exceptional trees have borne 1,000 lbs (455 kg) of fruit per year. One tree in Florida has borne 1,200 lbs (544 kg). In China, there are reports of 1,500 lb crops (680 kg). In South Africa, trees 25 years old have averaged 600 lbs (272 kg) each in good years and an average yield per acre is approximately 10,000 lbs annually (roughly equivalent to 10,000 kg per hectare).

Freshly picked lychees keep their color and quality only 3 to 5 days at room temperature. If pre-treated with 0.5% copper sulphate solution and kept in perforated polyethylene bags, they will remain fresh somewhat longer.

Fresh fruits, picked individually by snapping the stems and later de-stemmed during grading, and packed in shallow, ventilated cartons with shredded-paper cushioning, have been successfully shipped by air from Florida to markets throughout the United States and also to Canada. In South Africa, freshly picked lychees have been placed on trays in ventilated sheds, dusted with sulphur and left overnight, and then allowed to "wilt" in lugs for 24 to 48 hours to permit any infested or injured fruits to become conspicuous before grading and packing. It is said that fruits so treated retain their fresh color and are unaffected by fungi or pests for several weeks.

In China and India, lychees are packed in baskets or crates lined with leaves or other cushioning. The clusters or loose fruits are best packed in trays with protective sheets between the layers and no more than 5 single layers or 3 double layers are joined together. The pack should not be too tight. Containers for stacked trays or fruits not so arranged, must be fairly shallow to avoid too much weight and crushing. Spoilage may be retarded by moistening the fruits with a salt solution.

In the Cook Islands, the fruits are removed from the clusters, dipped in Benlate to control fungal growth, dried on racks, then packed in cartons for shipment to New Zealand. South African shippers immerse the fruits for 10 minutes in a suspension of 0.375 dicloran 50% wp plus 0.625 g benomyl 50% wp per liter of water warmed to 125.6º F (52º C). Tests at CSIRO, Div. of Food Research, New South Wales, Australia, in 1982, showed good color retention, retardation of weight loss and fungal spoilage in lychees dipped in hot benomyl 0.05% at 125.6º F (52º C) for two minutes and packed in trays with PVC "skrink" film covering. The chemical treatment had not yet been approved by health authorities.

Lychee clusters shipped to France by air from Madagascar have arrived in fresh condition when packed 13 lbs (6 kg) to the carton and cushioned with leaves of the traveler's tree (Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn.).

Boat shipment requires hydrocooling at the plantation at 32º-35.6º F (0º-2º C), packing in sealed polyethylene bags, storing and conveying to the port at -4º to -13º F (-20º--25º C) and shipping at 32º to 35.6º F (0º-2º C).

In Florida, fresh lychees in sealed, heavy-gauge polyethylene bags keep their color for 7 days in storage or transit at 35º to 50º F (1.67º-10º C). Each bag should contain no more than 15 lbs (6.8 kg) of fruit.

Lychees placed in polyethylene bags with moss, leaves, paper shavings or cotton packing have retained fresh color and quality for 2 weeks in storage at 45º F (7.22º C) for a month at 40º F (4.44º C). At 32º to 35º F(0º-1.67º C) and 85% to 90% relative humidity, untreated lychees, can be stored for 10 weeks the skin will turn brown but the flesh will be virtually in fresh condition but sweeter.

Frozen, peeled or unpeeled, lychees in moisture-vapor-proof containers keep for 2 years.

Plate XXXIII: LYCHEE, Litchi chinensis: dried
Drying of Lychees

Lychees dehydrate naturally. The skin loses its original color, becomes cinnamon-brown, and turns brittle. The flesh turns dark-brown to nearly black as it shrivels and becomes very much like a raisin. The skin of 'Kwai Mi' becomes very tough when dried that of 'Madras' less so. The fruits will dry perfectly if clusters are merely hung in a closed, air-conditioned room.

In China, lychees are preferably dried in the sun on hanging wire trays and brought inside at night and during showers. Some are dried by means of brick stoves during humid weather.

When exports of dried fruits from China to the United States were suspended, India welcomed the opportunity to supply the market. Experimental drying involved preliminary disinfection by immersing the fruits in 0.5% copper sulphate solution for 2 minutes. Sun-drying on coir-mesh trays took 15 days and the results were good except that thin-skinned fruits tended to crack. It was found that shade-drying for 2 days before full exposure to the sun prevented cracking.

Electric-oven drying of single layers arranged in tiers, at 122º to 140º F (50º-65º C), requires only 4 days. Hot-air-blast at 160º F(70º C) dries seedless fruits in 48 hours. Fire-oven and vacuum-oven drying were found unsatisfactory. Florida researchers have demonstrated the feasibility of drying untreated lychees at 120º F (48.8º C) with free-stream air flow rates above 35 CMF/f 2 . Drying at higher temperatures gave the fruits a bitter flavor.

The best quality and light color of flesh instead of dark-brown is achieved by first blanching in boiling water for 5 minutes, immersing in a solution of 2% potassium metabisulphite for 48 hours, and dipping in citric acid prior to drying.

Dried fruits can be stored in tins at room temperature for about a year with no change in texture or flavor.

In most areas where lychees are grown, the most serious foliage pest is the erinose, or leaf-curl, mite, Aceria litchii, which attacks the new growth causing hairy, blister-like galls on the upperside of the leaves, thickening, wrinkling and distorting them, and brown, felt-like wool on the underside. The mite apparently came to Florida on plants from Hawaii in 1953 but has been effectively eradicated. A leaf-webber, Dudua aprobola, attacks the new growth of all lychee trees in the Punjab.

The most destructive enemy of the lychee in China is a stinkbug (Tessaratoma papillosa) with bright-red markings. It sucks the sap from young twigs and they often die at least there is a high rate of fruit-shedding. This pest is combatted by shaking the trees in winter, collecting the bugs and dropping them into kerosene. Without such efforts, it works havoc. A stinkbug (Banasa lenticularis) has been found on lychee foliage in Florida. The leaf-eating false-unicorn caterpillar (Schizura ipomeae), which is parasitized by a tachinid fly (Thorocera floridensis) feeds on the leaves. The foliage is sometimes infested with red spider mites (Paratetranychus hawaiiensis). The citrus aphid (Toxoptera aurantii) preys on flush foliage. Two leaf rollers, Argyroploce leucaspis, and A. aprobola, are active on lychee trees in India. Thrips (Dolicothrips idicus) attack the foliage and Megalurothrips (Taeniothrips) distalis and Lymantria mathura damage the flowers.

A twig-pruner, Hypermallus villosus, has damaged lychee trees in Florida and a twig borer, Proteoteras implicata, has killed twigs of new growth on Florida lychees. The larvae of a native leaf beetle, Exema nodulosa, has been found puncturing and girdling lychee branchlets 1/8 to 1/4 in (3-6 mm) thick. Ambrosia beetles bore into the stems of young trees and fungi enter through their holes. A shoot-borer, Chlumetia transversa, is found on lychee trees all over India. Two bark-boring caterpillars, Indarbela quadrinotata and I. tetraonis, bore rings around the trunk underneath the bark of older trees. The larvae of a small moth, Acrocerops cramerella, eat developing seeds and the pith of young twigs. A small parasitic wasp helps to control this predator, as does the sanitary practice of burning the fallen lychee leaves.

The aphid (Aphis spiraecola) occurs on young plants in shaded nurseries, as does the armored scale, or lychee bark scale, Pseudaulacaspis major, and white peach scale, P. pentagona. The Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum, has been seen on lychee trees, also the banana-shaped scale, Coccus acutissimus, and green-shield scale, Pulvinaria psidii. The latter is the second most serious pest in Florida. Others are the six-spotted mite, Eotetranychus sexmaculatus, the leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus, and less troublesome creatures such as the several species of Scarabaeidae (related to June bugs) which attack leaves and flower buds.

In South Africa, the parasitic nematode Hemicriconemoides mangiferae and Xiphinema brevicolle cause die-back, decline and ultimately death of lychee trees, sometimes devastating orchards. The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, also attacks the lychee in South Africa but is less prevalent.

In Florida, the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula, and the larvae of the cotton square borer, Strymon metinus, attack the fruit. Seed-feeding Lepidoptera, especially Cryptophlebia ombrodelta and Lobesia sp. cause much fruit damage and falling in northern Queensland. Carbaryl sprays considerably reduce the losses. In South Africa, a moth, Argyroploce peltastica, lays eggs on the surface of the fruit and the larvae may penetrate weak areas of the skin and infest the flesh. The fruit flies, Ceratites capitata and Pterandrus rosa make minute holes and cracks in the skin and cause internal decay. These pests are so detrimental that growers have adopted the practice of enclosing bunches of clusters (with most of the leaves removed) in bags made of "wet-strength" paper or unbleached calico 6 to 8 weeks before harvest-time. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa, has attacked lychee fruits in Florida.

Birds, bats and bees damage ripe fruits on the trees in China and sometimes a stilt house is built beside a choice lychee tree for a watchman to keep guard and ward off these predators, or a large net may be thrown over the tree. In Florida, birds, squirrels, raccoons and rats are prime enemies. Birds have been repelled by hanging on the branches thin metallic ribbons which move, gleam and rattle in the wind. Grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids may, at times, feed heavily on the foliage.

Few diseases have been reported from any lychee-growing locality. The glossy leaves are very resistant to fungi. In Florida, lychee trees are occasionally subject to green scurf, or algal leaf spot (Cephaleuros virescens), leaf blight ( Gleosporium sp.), die-back, caused by Phomopsis sp., and mushroom root rot (Clitocybe tabescens) which is most likely to attack lychee trees planted where oak trees formerly stood. Old oak roots and stumps have been found thoroughly infected with the fungus.

In India, leaf spot caused by Pestalotia pauciseta may be prevalent in December and can be controlled by lime-sulphur sprays. Leaf spots caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which begin at the tip of the leaflet, were first noticed in India in 1962.

Lichens and algae commonly grow on the trunks and branches of lychee trees.

The main post-harvest problem is spoilage by the yeast-like organism, which is quick to attack warm, moist fruits. It is important to keep the fruits dry and cool, with good circulation of air. When conditions favor rotting, dusting with fungicide will be necessary.

Fig. 73: Peeled, seeded, lychees (Litchi chinensis) are canned in sirup in the Orient and exported to the United States and other countries.

Lychees are most relished fresh, out-of-hand. Peeled and pitted, they are commonly added to fruit cups and fruit salads. Lychees stuffed with cottage cheese are served as salad topped with dressing and pecans. Or the fruit may be stuffed with a blend of cream cheese and mayonnaise, or stuffed with pecan meats, and garnished with whipped cream. Sliced lychees, congealed in lime gelatin, are served on lettuce with whipped cream or mayonnaise. The fruits may be layered with pistachio ice cream and whipped cream in parfait glasses, as dessert. Halved lychees have been placed on top of ham during the last hour of baking, or grilled on top of steak. Pureed lychees are added to ice cream mix. Sherbet is made by extracting the juice from fresh, seeded lychees and adding it to a mixture of prepared plain gelatin, hot milk, light cream, sugar and a little lemon juice, and freezing.

Peeled, seeded lychees are canned in sugar sirup in India and China and have been exported from China for many years. Browning, or pink discoloration, of the flesh is prevented by the addition of 4% tartaric acid solution, or by using 30º Brix sirup containing 0.1% to 0.15% citric acid to achieve a pH of about 4.5, processing for a maximum of 10 minutes in boiling water, and chilling immediately.

Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion*
Fresh Dried
Calories 63-64 277
Moisture 81.9-84.83% 17.90-22.3%
Protein 0.68-1.0 g 2.90-3.8 g
Fat 0.3-0.58 g 0.20-1.2 g
Carbohydrates 13.31-16.4 g 70.7-77.5 g
Fiber 0.23-0.4 g 1.4 g
Ash 0.37-0.5 g 1.5-2.0 g
Kalcijum 8-10 mg 33 mg
Fosfor 30-42 mg
Iron 0.4 mg 1.7 mg
Sodium 3 mg 3 mg
Kalijum 170 mg 1,100 mg
Thiamine 28 mcg
Nicotinic Acid 0.4 mg
Riboflavin 0.05 mg 0.05 mg
Ascorbic Acid 24-60 mg 42 mg

*According to analyses made in China, India and the Philippines.

The lychee is low in phenols and non-astringent in all stages of maturity.

To a small extent, lychees are also spiced or pickled, or made into sauce, preserves or wine. Lychee jelly has been made from blanched, minced lychees and their accompanying juice, with 1% pectin, and combined phosphoric and citric acid added to enhance the flavor.

The flesh of dried lychees is eaten like raisins. Chinese people enjoy using the dried flesh in their tea as a sweetener in place of sugar.

Whole frozen lychees are thawed in tepid water. They must be consumed very soon, as they discolor and spoil quickly.

In China, great quantities of honey are harvested from hives near lychee trees. Honey from bee colonies in lychee groves in Florida is light amber, of the highest quality, with a rich, delicious flavor like that of the juice which leaks when the fruit is peeled, and the honey does not granulate.

Medicinal Uses: Ingested in moderate amounts, the lychee is said to relieve coughing and to have a beneficial effect on gastralgia, tumors and enlargements of the glands. One stomach-ulcer patient in Florida, has reported that, after eating several fresh lychees he was able to enjoy a large meal that, ordinarily, would have caused great discomfort. Chinese people believe that excessive consumption of raw lychees causes fever and nosebleed. According to legends, ancient devotees have consumed from 300 to 1,000 per day.

In China, the seeds are credited with an analgesic action and they are given in neuralgia and orchitis. A tea of the fruit peel is taken to overcome smallpox eruptions and diarrhea. In India, the seeds are powdered and, because of their astringency, administered in intestinal troubles, and they have the reputation there, as in China, of relieving neuralgic pains. Decoctions of the root, bark and flowers are gargled to alleviate ailments of the throat. Lychee roots have shown activity against one type of tumor in experimental animals in the United States Department of Agriculture/National Cancer Institute Cancer Chemotherapy Screening Program.


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